Millions of years ago Mars was hardly a warm place
At the moment, Mars is the most habitable planet of people. It is largely similar to our native Land: the surface of the solid, the day lasts almost the same 24 hours, and periodically there is a change of seasons. Scientists believe that millions of years ago between our planet and Mars were more similarities, such as the presence of water and living organisms. He is one catch — in ancient times the Sun shone much weaker than it is now, and Mars were all pretty far away and closer is not going to. It turns out that the planet was cold and it couldn't be rivers and oceans. But how then to explain the presence on its surface of the valleys and hollows, apparently formed by currents of water? Finding the explanation for this mysterious phenomenon was studied by the canadian scientists. In the course of scientific work they were able to put forward a theory that significantly change the representation of scientists about the past of the red planet. Perhaps Mars was like a giant snowball.
The Essence of the theory was published in science . According to one of the study's authors Anne Grau Galofre (Anna Grau Galofre), the last 40 years, the scientific community believes that the irregularities on the surface of Mars were formed due to the movement of rivers. However, between the valleys and depressions in different areas of the planet have distinctive features. To find out what factors could affect the structure of the irregularities, the scientists decided to find a place on Earth, the surface of which is maximally similar to the Martian landscape. However, the existence of such a place, researchers have long known.
One of the most Mars like places on our planet is an uninhabited island is Devon, located in the North of Canada. Almost all of its surface is a cold and dry desert. If you look at the island from a bird's eye or even satellite, you will notice that its surface is really very similar to the expanses of the red planet. It is also full of all sorts of irregularities and scientists are well aware of how they were formed. As Devon island is a pretty cold place most of the rivers flowing there under a layer of ice. Part of the ice sheet eventually melted and left rivers of the valley are now well visible to us. In their structure they are very different from valleys formed by rivers that flow under the open sky.
the Surface of Devon island is very similar to the Martian landscape.
Now, scientists have become familiar with the distinguishing features of two types of valleys. Based on these data, they developed an algorithm that is able to quickly explore the photos 10 thousand Martian irregularities. Among them, researchers have found many valleys, which are clearly formed under a thick layer of ice. Most of them were formed about 3.8 billion years ago. It turns out that once upon a time though not all, but most of Mars was covered with ice and snow. But scientists thought that it was very similar to our blue-green Earth.
on Top shows the surface of Mars, and the bottom surface of Devon island
If Mars was indeed covered with layers of ice, the probability of the existence on it of living organisms is markedly increased. The fact that microorganisms could live in the hidden under the ice shield waters. And this shield, in turn, could protect them from space radiation. Because the red planet is very weak magnetic field, which is just the same and serves to protect us from damaging radiation. So, despite changing ideas about the appearance and conditions of ancient Mars, the probability that it lived at least a primitive species have survived. Maybe someday their traces will be discovered and we will have confidence in the fact that on other planets life could exist.
According to the new theory, 3.8 billion years ago Mars looked like this
Created in the framework of scientific work of computer the algorithm is not lost. According to the developers, it can be useful for the study of Earth's past. Currently existing technologies allow us to see history not next 5 million years, and the new algorithm can reconstruct the history of glaciation of the planet for the last 35 million years. Sounds intriguing, so it is hoped that new discoveries will not keep itself waiting long.
On the topic of Mars also suggest reading material on how its surface was found mysterious objects. In the pictures they look like human bones, but what they really are? To know the answer to this question .