Transparent frog Hyalinobatrachium species yaku was opened relatively recently, in 2017
Almost all corners of our planet live frogs amphibian creatures with bulging eyes, devoid of the tail. Today scientists know about the existence of around 2500 species of frogs, which differ from each other in size, lifestyle and skin color. In the nature of a lot of frogs of yellow, red and even blue, but most of them are painted in a shade of green. But what exactly caused the color of these creatures? The search for the answer to this question, scientists have been doing for many years, in General it is found. However, in every scientific work becomes known more interesting facts. So, these croaking only seem unremarkable — in fact, in their organisms there is a lot of complex processes.
Typically, the outer cover of amphibians, insects and many other creatures plays an important role in their lives. Some animals with his painting cleverly disguised in nature and hide from predators. Also there are brightly colored creatures who all warn attackers about his danger — often, they are poisonous. Frogs do not go to the exception list and also use their skin for two purposes:
For the color of the skin of frogs meet a special cell referred to as chromatophores. They are also available in many fishes, crustaceans and cephalopods. Read more about the work of these cells I was talking about how these cells play a key role. In a nutshell, the chromatophores contain colorants. The activity of these cells depends on many factors like environmental conditions and emotional States of cold-blooded animals. But, in this article, we need to know only what they are responsible for the color of the skin of frogs.
Red frog-tomato (Dyscophus antongilii)
The Most poisonous frog in the world is a terrible ristolas (Phyllobates terribilis). I mentioned above that many poisonous creatures warn about the danger of their bright. Terrible ristolas also cares about its enemies and reports on its virulence using the skin yellow. The outer cover of this frog is covered with a poisonous substance . One frog contains enough poison to kill 10 adults and absolutely healthy men. So, at least, according to different scientific sources.
ristolas terrible Frog (Phyllobates terribilis)
Batrachotoxin affects the human body as follows:
The terrible Danger listratov is increased by the fact that scientists still do not know how to stop the destructive action of batrachotoxin on the human body. But they already know that when mixed with the venom of the Scorpion, the more dangerous it becomes batrachotoxin 12. I wish they were able to find a method of weakening poison.
With multi-colored frogs and their green relatives, who in huge numbers are found in Russia, everything is clear. First use bright coloration to warn the enemies and the second for protection. The skin copes with the imposed tasks. Poisonous frogs are clearly visible from afar, and the green is almost imperceptible. At least on the surface of muddy ground near ponds.
Another dangerous frog — Zimmerman poison frog (Ranitomeya variabilis)
But did you know that in the world there are frogs with transparent skin? the so-called glass frog (Centrolenidae) got its name because, through their skin you can see the internal organs. But they warn of its virulence and masked on the background of nature? After all, prominent through the brain and digestive system do not do anything useful — they don't scare off animals and not really give a hug.
glass frogs you can see all the insides. At least the bottom
Fortunately, the evolution of great care even about tiny frogs. In fact, backless transparent frogs can turn green. Scientists could not understand how this happens, but recently, the answer was finally found and published in . As it turned out, some frogs have transparent skin, but can be painted inside. And this helps them a substance known as biliverdin.
Frogs gain the green color is due to the interaction of two chemicals
This is a toxic substance detrimental to all living organisms and, if you think logically, should kill the frogs. But no — in their organisms also contains a chemical with a complex name of the biliverdin-binding serpin. It neutralizes the toxic effect of the pigment and thus makes a light green shade biliverdin darker. As a result, the transparent frogs without any problems can be masked, just like their closestrelatives.
About the "green spots" on the backs of transparent frogs I wrote in the article about . I recommend reading, because there addresses the theme of transparency, not only of amphibious creatures, but also fish. Happy reading!