The biggest eruptions in human history

The biggest eruptions in human history

Everything you love will forever destroy the time… This thing can.

The Eruption of a volcano — is more than just a natural disaster. Just imagine that on you from the sky falling debris, the air is a column of ash, and the slope of the ”mountains” you poured basically molten earth. The horror, right? Looks even not as a disaster flick, but as a real Apocalypse. However, even in recent human history was a very serious eruption of volcanoes. They did not just killed, but buried the whole city. All because of the fact that such elements people just can't oppose. Even the earthquake and tsunami are not as scary as it is. If the eruption is just scary, imagine what were the most powerful of them.

About volcanoes a lot can be said and to give examples of why they happen. There are different types depending on the intensity of the accompanying phenomena, and where it all happens. In the end, do not forget that there is even a division between regular volcanoes and underwater.

First and foremost, we must understand that the earth's shell and on it we all live. The thickness of this layer is approximately one percent of the diameter of the Earth, but in absolute figures it is about 70-80 kilometers on land and 20-30 km on the ocean floor. The lithosphere consists of plates, between which there are faults. These faults are the places most likely volcanoes.

Under the lithospheric plates is the mantle, which is heated to several thousand degrees. The consistency is like thick tar and it is for the ”float” lithospheric plate. When plates move, they find each other, and the part that is the bottom begins to melt and the fused product of this is called a magma.

Magma is lighter and more fluid than the mantle, and for that she accumulates directly below the lithospheric plates. As a result of such accumulation and increase in pressure due to boiling of rocks and water vapor, she begins to seek a way to the surface. In results where a weak spot and it'll explode. Sometimes magma finds the easy way out and gradually flows without explosion. If this is not possible, then trouble is inevitable. Especially when it comes to dormant volcanoes that have not erupted, but the pressure they were piling up. The more it accumulates, the more powerful the eruption.

Structure of a volcano looks like.

The Classic volcanoes are called stratovolcanoes. They have a conical shape and is composed of various eruptive products. They usually are where one tectonic plate goes under another. Magma in this case is as close to the surface and so are eruptions of stratovolcanoes are often very powerful.

Now that the ”technology eruption” all clear, you can talk about what the eruption was the most powerful in the history of mankind for the last time. Everyone's memory Vesuvius, which buried Pompeii, and Eyjafjallajökull, which erupted a few years ago and for a while paralyzed air traffic in Europe. Besides these eruptions, there were other, far more interesting and/or scale.

It is no Vesuvius, whose name is closely associated in the minds of many with the name of the city of Pompeii, a story about volcanoes would be incomplete.

This volcano there are hundreds of thousands of years and in that time , has erupted at least 50 times, but his most famous activity occurred in 79 ad, when it buried Pompeii, together with Stabiae, Herculaneum and a few other fine Roman city. All of them covered with a thick layer of volcanic ash.

once Pompeii could be called a flourishing town, but mount Vesuvius had other ideas.

As a result, killed about 2 000 people (population density of that time it very much), and the city became uninhabitable for hundreds of years. Only in 1748, the researchers found that city of Pompeii is well preserved under the ashes, which gave a lot of important information to study the life of the people of that time.

The eruption was preceded by in the Campania region in the year 63. And according to the testimony of contemporaries of events, a few weeks before the eruption of the Vesuvius again warned residents of the impending disaster, throwing in the sky a small column of ash. Here are just a few people scared.

If the eruption of Vesuvius again with the force that he's capable of, quite possibly, this will threaten the lives of three million people who live in its vicinity . While a relatively small eruption of this volcano occurred in 1944 when 26 people were killed by the collapse of roofs under the weight of ash on them.

So the tragedy portrayed Karl Bryullov on his picture «Last day of Pompeii».

In Iceland, there is a large number of volcanoes. This is due to the fact that it is . When there are small earthquakes or volcanoes, the locals don't even care. But sometimes there are more serious incident. One of them was the eruptionLucky.

It took place on 8 June 1783 in the South of the country. As a result, under a layer of lava was 2 500 square kilometers of territory, which were villages and even cities. This scale has been achieved due to the fact that has erupted is not one volcano, but a chain of 135 fractures. She got the name Lucky.

The eruption did not bring such damage as its consequences. ash and fluoride has been posted in the vast territory. It is not only polluted but also led to the defeat of a huge number of animals. Was killed half the livestock in Iceland and about a quarter of the horses and sheep. The ensuing starvation killed a fifth of Iceland's population.

Iceland is insanely beautiful, but the volcanic risk there is much higher than in other places.

The Products of the eruption and spread around the world. In Europe and the British Isles, many people died from poisoning water and air. Also for many years the climate changed due to contact with the upper layers of the atmosphere large quantities of ash, which screened the sun's rays. A few years in Japan and America recorded a terrible drought and a very cold winter. Many even say that the eruption and the ensuing drought, which in turn led to starvation, provoked the French revolution of 1789-1799.

The eruption was preceded by several tremors and emissions of ash, which gave people to understand that this is the worst thing that could happen, but it wasn't. In the end, 26 APR 1883, there was a strong eruption. the Explosion was heard thousands of kilometers away of the volcano.

The worst was that the eruption , whose height reached 40 meters. As a result of collapse of the tsunami on the coast killed 34 000 people.

In normal times, the Indonesian Krakatau volcano looks very peaceful.

You Have to understand that Krakatoa is still an active volcano. However, that eruption was the largest and since then something as serious has ever happened yet. The volcano is canonical. After each eruption he increases, which leads to an increase in strength following the earthquakes.

Novarupta — one of a chain of volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula. The eruption of this volcano was the largest in the twentieth century. The eruption began on June 6, 1912. The explosion was heard even in the 1 200 kilometers from the volcano.

The Eruption lasted for 60 hours, resulting in turned released 30 cubic kilometers of rock and ash. All this has made the dead many miles of land around the volcano. This was the largest volcanic disaster in the history of Alaska.

The First who realized that the eruption, were residents of the city of Kodiak, located 150 kilometers from the volcano. In the direction of this city moved the ash cloud once rose to a height of 30 kilometers. As a result, for three days the city was covered with a 30-centimeter layer of ash. It even led to a who could not stand the weight of ash.

so the volcanoes are throwing into the sky a column of ash.

People had to hide in their homes, as the city for 2.5 days, completely plunged into darkness. Local residents claimed that it was not visible even the lantern at arm's length.

The inhabitants of the island of Kodiak, located approximately 150 km from the volcano, was the first who realized the seriousness of this eruption. The ash cloud rapidly rose to a height of 30 km, and then within the hour was approaching him. After a few hours of the eruption on the island began to fall the ash, over the next three days the thickness of the layer that covered the city exceeded 30 cm after 60 hours the city is completely plunged into darkness, could barely see the lantern at arm's length. Residents of Kodiak were forced to take shelter in the premises. Many buildings collapsed from the weight of ash on roofs.

Sounds scary, but it was accompanied by earthquakes with magnitude up to 7 points and there were dozens of them (only fixed). The strength of the eruption says that it was destroyed about 5 cubic kilometers of rock in the mountain which was a volcano.

St Helens is one of the most active volcanoes in the US. It was about 275 thousand years ago a series of eruptions. In recent history, the most powerful was the eruption of 1980 that killed 57 people, and damage was caused to tens of kilometers around.

Such volcanoes are even more harmless until they begin to erupt. Just imagine that the top had so many rocks that the mountain was a cone. It's St Helens.

During the eruption the column of ash billowed at 24 km and to a different degree covered a 11 States. The worst thing is that during the eruption weakened slid off the mountain and staged a landslide, rushing with a speed of up to 250kilometers per hour. This led to the fact that over 23 kilometers of river the North Fork-Toutl formed a layer of stones and mud with a thickness on average of 40-50 metres, but sometimes up to 200 meters.

Even today there are traces of that eruption. For example, dead trees still floating in the Lake of the spirit. In 2004, the volcano woke up again and vomited more than 100 million cubic meters of lava, ashes and stones. And in 2016 occurred at about 130 small earthquakes, which confirmed the guess of scientists about the presence of under the volcano, a large number of ”pockets” of magma. Her movement caused the tremors.

Volcano in the Philippines, located about 100 kilometers from Manila, island of Luzon, ”gave a voice” March 5, 1991. The first signs that something is wrong, there were lots of aftershocks. And after, on 12 June of the same year, the eruption, which lasted approximately one hour and generated a column of ash and gas to a height of approximately 20 kilometers.

Three days Later, the eruption recurred in the form of a series of small ”shots”. This resulted in a mushroom cloud of ash a height of about 34 km and a diameter of about 400 kilometers. The eruption the atmosphere was ejected about 5 cubic kilometers of ash.

But at the time of the eruption all around and looks.

All that took the life of an area up to 400 square kilometers and covered the land around the lava layer thickness up to 200 meters. In addition, rains ash and other eruptive products fell into the river . And the ashes in the atmosphere, mingling with the suspended water drops, several times circled the globe. This led to the fact, that before the surface got less sunlight and the average temperature on the planet fell by 1 degree for a year.

Before the eruption the volcano was an ordinary mountain, the top of which was the jungle. It has not erupted for 400 years, creating a sense of imaginary security. After the eruption, the mountain became lower by about 250 meters.

Currently, the biggest volcano is the one that is located in the Yellowstone Park. This place was formed because of a series of eruptions that took place millions of years ago.

The Last major eruption occurred about 640 million years ago. Then the air was sent thousands of cubic kilometers of lava. No wonder it is called a SUPERVOLCANO. The worst thing is that the volcano is still there and may erupt at any moment.

Yellowstone national Park — a beautiful place, but it could mark the end of all life on our planet.

If this happens, it can happen . About half of the U.S. will be under the heavy layer of ash, and the planet's climate will change dramatically because of the huge amount of sulphur dioxide that will be emitted in the eruption.

On the other hand, many researchers argue that the Yellowstone volcano will soon finally cease to be asleep and will become extinct. Such an assumption they made based on the movement of tectonic plates, which does not lead to the formation of magma necessary for the eruption. So what is to not panic. But if the eruption happens, it may lead to the death of all life due to the pollution of air, water and soil throughout the world. A grim ending for the article, Yes?


The last notes - Наука

most read news