the Most famous of the Egyptian pyramids is the pyramid of Cheops
The Egyptian pyramids are considered one of the most mysterious structures in the world. At the moment the scientific community is aware of 140 structures, most of which were intended for the burial of pharaohs the rulers of Ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians sincerely believed that the great tombs of the rulers exalt and give them immortality. Today, looking at these huge structures, we can imagine how they were built. Even in the modern world for the construction of flats takes a few years and it is provided that the used heavy machinery like excavators and cranes. Thousands of years ago, this technique could not be out of the question, so scientists are unable to understand how the ancient builders was moved and raised the huge stones of which the pyramids were built. After construction they were carefully cleaned on-site of the tombs, so no tool marks are left. Fortunately, in the world there is unfinished pyramid.
Many of the unfinished pyramid located at Saqqara. The so-called Egyptian village and at the same time the archaeological Museum, located 30 kilometers from Cairo. One of the unfinished tombs of the pharaohs is the pyramid of Pharaoh Sekhemkhet. Its existence was not known until 1951 — the Foundation of the design was accidentally discovered by the Egyptian archaeologist Zakaria made by Honeyman. According to calculations, the height of the pyramid was supposed to be about 70 meters but, for reasons unknown, its construction was suddenly stopped.
the scene of the discovery of the pyramid Sekhemkhet
Close this and similar unfinished pyramid, the archaeologists were able to find lots of interesting items. For example, on the ground were found the remains of tools with which the Egyptians were able to move stone blocks weighing up to 2.5 tons. Many people think that the pyramids is built of square stones, but no — it has long been proved that the Egyptians used stones of different shapes and sizes. The only rule in this case was that the base of the pyramid had to put big cubes, and on top used the smaller stones.
the Pyramid is built of many stone blocks to the height of an adult
Some people believe that the construction of the Egyptian pyramids slaves were engaged in. But this myth we have to dispel our — work were involved ordinary Egyptians. Construction actively conducted during periods when people did not have to follow agriculture. Important tasks like project planning and tracking building blocks were given to the architects. Most of the workers working at quarries, the most complex from the physical point of view the task was to drag and drop blocks. According to scientists, in the construction of each pyramid were involved about 20-30 thousand Egyptians. Opponents of this case, apparently, was not enough, because the work was carried out in the name of the Pharaoh.
the building of the pyramid in the representation of the artist
It is Logical to assume that all the workers needed somewhere to sleep and something to eat. All this was available in special villages for builders. The remains of one of them was found near the three pyramids of Giza — Egyptian city on the West Bank of the Nile river. Excavations in this area conducted since the 1960-ies. During all this time archaeologists managed to find the place of burial of architects, foremen and ordinary workers. Their graves were very different architects who have made a significant contribution to the design of the pyramids, were buried inside the tombs. Ordinary workers, in turn, were buried in ordinary graves.
In the village for the builders was located workshops, which manufactured tools. Also there was organized a place for cooking food for workers: bakeries, Breweries, and storehouses for drying fish. In addition to this, archaeologists had found the place for the sacrifices to deceased pharaohs. Apparently, Ancient Egypt was a rich place, because the residents could not afford the offering, even young animals.
Beer is the main alcoholic drink of Ancient Egypt
About construction methods of the pyramids is known not only for archaeological finds. They are also described in historical works of ancient Greek historian Herodotus. In his book "History" he wrote that for the construction of one pyramid, people have gone about 30 years. So, about a decade, they paved the way to the pyramid, and 20 years to build the tomb. Only here the historian has failed to observe the construction of their own eyes, and he wrote a book based on the stories of people who lived after two thousand years since the time of construction. Besides, he didn't know the Egyptian language and could be misunderstood storytellers.
Interesting facts about Ancient Egypt known thanks to the historian Herodotus
However, that Herodotus described in detail the process of making stone blocks for the pyramids and the technology of their displacement. So, the stones were found more or less flat shape in the quarries — the workers gave themshape using chisels and other tools made of copper. The resulting blocks were dragged from place to place by means of different levers, which reduces the load on people. But still, workers had to act together and to make joint efforts to lift the huge blocks. The image below shows how it's all about happened.
the descriptions of Herodotus, the pyramid looked like this
Seem More reliable assumptions made after studying the inscriptions on the stone blocks. The marked blocks are in the depths of the pyramids, but they contain a lot of interesting information. Most likely, they were made by the ancient master builders who oversaw the construction projects. The stone blocks inside the different pyramids were found information about the construction team and the date of completion of the work. Archaeologists believe that between different groups of workers could get the competition. Maybe for the speed and quality of work they received some privileges, but evidence of this yet.
On the pyramid walls there are many pictures and they all about anything tell
Also interesting information about the construction of the Egyptian pyramids, scientists have learned from the written documents found at the ancient port of Wadi al-Dzharf off the coast of the red sea. They contain a lot of information about the construction of the great pyramid, but while the public is available only part of it. From one document, the archaeologists found that the workers had to get a lot of limestone for the cladding of buildings. Today, the external structure of the pyramids resembles the steps, but thousands of years ago, they were perfectly smooth and white. Over time, wind blew thick layers of limestone and now the pyramid is not very neat in appearance and painted rather in yellow.
Height of the largest pyramid in the world — 145 meters. This is the pyramid of Cheops
About who was dedicated to one or the other pyramid, again evidenced by inscriptions. The room in which the pharaohs turned into mummies, are always in the depth of the structure. To the upper part of the pyramid is pressed into the burial chamber, above the room with the body were constructed of so-called "discharge chamber", which reduces the load. Above the room with the body of Pharaoh Khufu was written "the Horizon of Khufu". You would think that the tomb is for a different ruler, but no — Cheops the Pharaoh was called by Herodotus, and for the Egyptians he was always Khufu.
In the movies about the adventures of Indiana Jones and Lara Croft of the tomb are equipped with traps. In fact, it is a myth — the Egyptians really were trying to protect the resting places of the pharaohs with structures, but they cannot be called a trap. While exploring the pyramid of Cheops in 2016, archaeologists have discovered a simple mechanism to protect the inner rooms. They were ordinary barricades of stone blocks and simply prevented looters to get to the burial chamber where lay the body of the Pharaoh, and various jewels. So all this is a myth.
Inside the pyramids, there are no traps.
Also in many films is told about the curse of the pharaohs. But this is a little closer to the truth, but only partly. Yes, in 1922, archaeologists really opened the tomb of Tutankhamun, and found the inscription that "violating the peace of the Pharaoh will be punished". In the next few months almost all of the study group died and people people are almost completely were convinced in existence of curse. However — many of the dead archaeologists were older than 70 years were not protected from germs and fungus which probably lived in an ancient pyramid. So, their death can be explained not only by a mysterious curse and the cause may be a banal negligence.
still from the film "the Mummy"
If you watched the documentaries, especially on TV, you probably have heard other theories about the construction of the pyramids. One of them was nominated in 1884 in the magazine and read that the pyramids were originally hills. That is, the Egyptians didn't need to build them from scratch — the stone blocks are simply superimposed on the hill from top to bottom. And the interior sand is then removed to formed passageways and rooms. Sounds interesting and even realistic, but evidence for this assumption there.
Sometimes the alien theory doesn't seem so crazy.
Another theory is that in the construction of the Egyptian pyramids was attended by the aliens. Well, that remains to think that even modern technology does not allow to quickly build such structures? Scientists surprised by how exactly the great pyramid looking North. Also, according to the book of Herodotus, the pyramids were built approximately 30 years. If you consider that some of the pyramid consists of 2.3 million stone blocks weighing 2.5 tons for the construction of the pyramid in such a short time, the stones had to be put once in two minutes. And it is simply impossible. So, alien intervention, some scientists do not rule out.
In General, the construction of the pyramids — the theme is mysterious and interesting. Only here when visiting Egypt to pay for their visit does not make sense. About why walking around the pyramids is considered to be a waste of time, I wrote .